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We all have our fears. When we are children we may have been fearful of dogs or strangers. As adults we may be fearful when we are about to give a speech or when we are walking alone at night in a narrow deserted street. People with anxiety disorders live with fears that are not mild short-term or reasonable. The fears are severe chronic and frequent enough to lower the quality of their lives and interfere with their functioning. Anxiety disorder affects 20% of the population which is 1 in 5 adults. Most anxiety disorders respond very well to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT). Earlier treatment results in improved outcomes and better quality of life for the person.
Panic disorder is characterized by sudden bursts of anxiety symptoms, a sense of loss of control or unreality and the sense that one is dying. Cognitive behavioral therapy has proven as useful as anti-anxiety drugs in reducing panic symptoms and more useful in preventing relapse in panic disorder. Treatment of panic disorder tends to be short-term and very effective
People with agoraphobia fear a wide variety of situation in which they might have an emergency but not able to escape or get help. Many people with agoraphobia also suffer from panic disorder.Specific phobias include animal type phobias, natural environment type phobias, situational type phobias and blood injection type phobia. People with social phobia fear social situations in which they might be embarrassed or judged by others. Behavioral treatment for phobias include systematic desensitization, modeling and flooding
Cognitive therapy are used to help clients identify and challenge negative catastrophizing thoughts they have when anxious
Generalized anxiety disorder
People with generalized anxiety disorder are anxious all the time in almost all situations. People with GAD worry about many things in their lives. They have difficulty in controlling worry and show excessive anxiety. They may worry about their performance on the job about how their relationships are going and about their own health. In addition physical symptoms may result such as muscle tension an inability to relax, nausea, dizziness, fatigue or insomnia
Cognitive behavioral treatments for people with GAD focus on helping them confront their negative thinking.
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
Obsessions are thoughts, images, ideas or impulses that are persistent, are intrusive and cause distress and they commonly focus on contamination, sex, violence and repeated doubts. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the individual feels he or she must perform to somehow erase his or her obsessions.
Cognitive-behavioral therapies have proven helpful for OCD. These therapies expose OCD clients to the content of their obsessions while preventing compulsive behavior; the anxiety over the obsessions and the compulsions to do the behaviors are extinguished. Cognitive behavioral therapies also help in preventing relapse.
Mood Disorders (Depression)
There are two general categories of mood disorders
Unipolar Depressive Disorder
People with Unipolar depression experience only the symptoms of depression
Loss of interest
Disruption in sleep and appetite
Loss of energy
Feeling of worthlessness and guilt
Within Unipolar depression the two major diagnostic categories are
Young and middle-aged adults have the highest rates of depression.
Bipolar Mood Disorder
The two major diagnostic categories of Bipolar Mood Disorder are
Bipolar Mood Disorders are less common than Unipolar Depressive Disorders but they are equally common in men as well as in women. The onset of Bipolar Disorder is most often in late adolescence or early adulthood. Most people have multiple episodes.
Behavioral treatment focuses on increasing positive reinforces and decreasing aversive events by helping clients change their environments, learn social skills, and by learning mood management skills
Cognitive Behavioral Treatment combines techniques of behavior therapy with techniques to identify and challenge depressive thinking patterns
Interpersonal therapy seeks to identify and overcome problems with grief, role transitions, interpersonal role disputes and deficits in interpersonal skills that contribute to depression.
Cognitive therapy lowers future risk of depression and its effective in approximately 70% of the cases. Cognitive therapy focuses on
Identifying automatic thoughts
Disputing these thoughts
Learning to avoid ruminative behavior
Challenging core beliefs that limit the person’s ability to grow and be happy
Dr Aditya Gopinathan Nair
Dr Aditya Gopinathan Nair, is a consultant psychiatrist in practice in Mumbai. While Dr Nair has extensive clinical
experience in general and child/adolescent psychiatry, Dr Nair’s areas of interest include sexual psychology and post-traumatic stress.
He evaluates and treats patients for emotional problems such as
Bipolar Mood Disorder,
Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder among other disorders.
Dr Nair completed his undergraduate medical training from 1998 to 2003 under the Maharashtra University of Health Sciences. He further completed his residency in Psychiatry from 2005 to 2007 in Mumbai at the K J Somaiya Hospital & Research Centre during which he was awarded the Major General Jennings prize and Gold medal for securing the highest scores in the examination.
Consultant Psychiatrist with National Burns Centre, Airoli, Mumbai
Consultant Psychiatrist at Disha Psychiatric Clinic, Chembur, Mumbai
Consultant Psychiatrist with PANAHA Clinic at Sushrut Hospital, Chembur, Mumbai
Consultant Psychiatrist at Inlaks Hospital, Chembur, Mumbai
Consultant Psychiatrist at Hashu Advani Thallassemia Clinic, Chembur, Mumbai